Itu toolkit for cybercrime legislation

Itu toolkit for cybercrime legislation

These include: 1 Real-time analysis, aggregation and dissemination of global cyber-threat information. To assist countries in understanding the links between cybersecurity, the building of confidence and security in the use of ICTs, and cybercrime, ITU has developed, and is in the process of developing, a number of related resources.

The "ITU Toolkit for Cybercrime Legislation" aims to provide countries with sample legislative language and reference material that can assist in the establishment of harmonized cybercrime laws and procedural rules.

Development of the Toolkit is by a multidisciplinary international group of experts and a first draft was released in May Partnerships with the Council of EuropeUNODCInterpolNational Departments of Justice, as well as other national, regional and international organizations are being established to aid in the implementation of these and related activities. ICT applications, such as e-Government, e-Commerce, e-Education, e-Health and e-Environment, are seen as enablers for development, as they provide an efficient channel to deliver a wide range of basic services in remote and rural areas.

ICT applications can facilitate the achievement of millennium development targets, reducing poverty and improving health and environmental conditions in developing countries. Given the right approach, context and implementation processes, investments in ICT applications and tools can result in productivity and quality improvements.

In turn, e-applications may liberate technical and human capacity and enable greater access to basic services.

Botnets are coordinated groups of several thousand computing devices such as PCs, laptops and even the new generation of mobile devices such as 'smartphones'all infected with the same virus or other malware. Their collective computing power and Internet connectivity is harnessed into a collective whole and remote controlled for the performance of malicious and criminal activities.

Botnets are an illegal and unethical application of the concept of Distributed Systems, which has existed since at leastin which multiple computing devices cooperate to achieve an integrated result The guide can serve to help developing countries better understand the implications related to the growing cyber-threats and assist in the assessment of the current legal framework and in the establishment of a sound legal foundation, if this does not yet exist.

The publication was released in May Electronic Government for Developing Countries. The purpose of this report is to examine the adoption of e-Government services in countries with developing economies.

The day-to-day business of government is built on information. Information is a critical resource that helps to ensure the accountability of government, enables governments to manage its operations, and allows the public to participate in the governance of their country. With the revolutionary changes that ICTs are bringing to our global society, governments worldwide continue to develop more sophisticated ways to digitize its routines and practices so that they can offer the public access to government services in more effective and efficient ways.

Across the world, of countries use the Internet to deliver government services. These activities are broadly referred to as digital government, which is an "umbrella term that comprises all uses of information and telecommunication technologies in the public sector" Garson p.

E-Government focuses on the utilization of information and communication technologies ICT to deliver government services.The Toolkit is intended to provide countries with sample legislative language and reference materials that can assist in the establishment of harmonized cybercrime laws and procedural rules.

The Sample Language provided in the Toolkit, while not a model law, was developed after a comprehensive analysis of the laws of developed nations and the Council of Europe CoE Convention on Cybercrime. The Toolkit language is consistent with these laws and is intended to serve as a guide for countries desiring to develop, draft, or modify their own cybercrime laws.

The Toolkit is intended to advance the global harmonization of cybercrime laws by serving as a central resource to help legislators, attorneys, government officials, policy experts, and industry representatives around the globe move their countries toward a consistent legal framework that protects against the misuse of ICTs.

Sign In Don't have an account? Overview Edit The Toolkit is intended to provide countries with sample legislative language and reference materials that can assist in the establishment of harmonized cybercrime laws and procedural rules. Categories :. Cancel Save.But too often, children cannot realize these opportunities, because the Internet is also a place, in which the vulnerable.

It shares the analysis of an ITU cybersecurity awareness survey and provides a view on spam, its causes, and means to address spam. The report also provides a sampling of outreach activities that governments have taken to improve their overall societal posture toward cybersecurity. Best practices for Developing a Culture of Cybersecurity. Year of publication: This include the challenges faced and possible measures to enhance the related legislation so as to ensure a steady and regular flow of communication and availability of internet related services.

It encompasses the review of the institutional and regulatory frameworks, existing policies on critical information infrastructure protection, human development needs and identied areas of improvement and outnlines a recommendation for establishing a National Computer Incidence Response Team CIRT. The objectives of the readiness CIRT assessment study were to assess the capability and readiness to design and build a sustainable national CIRT, based on an analysis of stakeholder attributes with relevance to security incident response needs of the concerned countries.

It discusses what constitutes a national Cybersecurity strategy and it seeks to accomplish and the context that influences its execution.

The Guide also discusses how States and other relevant stakeholders such as private sector organisations can build capacity to execute a cybersecurity strategy and the resources required to address risks.

As national capabilities, needs and threats vary, the document recommends that countries use national values as the basis for strategies for two main reasons. Firstly, culture and national interests influence the perception of risk and the relative success of defences against cyber threats. Secondly, a strategy rooted in national values is likely to gain support of stakeholders such as the judiciary and private sector. Lastly, since cybersecurity is a branch of information security, the documents seeks to adopt global security standards.

The guide is intended to give developing countries a tool allowing them to better understand the economic, political, managerial, technical and legal Cybersecurity related issues in the spirit of the Global Cybersecurity Agenda. The purpose of it is to help countries get prepared to face issues linked to ICT deployment, uses, vulnerabilities and misuses. The content of the guide has been selected to meet the needs of developing and, in particular, least developed countries, in terms of the use of information and communication technologies for the provision of basic services in different sectors, while remaining committed to developing local potential and increasing awareness among all of the stakeholders.

National government agencies and institutions exist to implement and oversee these activities, and the responsibility for the operation and management of information infrastructures has traditionally been shared among government, owners and operators, and users. Protection of the information infrastructure formerly the PSTN network has been a longstanding concern of member states and the work of the ITU is testimony to this concern.

However, the use of information systems and networks and the entire information technology environment have changed dramatically in recent years. Increasing interconnectivity, the growing intelligence at the edges of the network, and the expanding role of information infrastructures in the economic and social life of a nation demand a new look at existing measures for the enhancement of cybersecurity Committed to connecting the world. Search for:.

Rollup Image. Page Content But too often, children cannot realize these opportunities, because the Internet is also a place, in which the vulnerable are exposed to the risk of serious harm. Globally, there are more than 2. Children around the world are regularly exposed to risks and harms online, including:. To combat these harms and risks requires a coordinated and global approach. Unfortunately, the fight against child online abuse and exploitation is neither unified nor pursued in a way that is consistent across all countries.

Capabilities, legal frameworks. The reference guide further lays out existing practices, relevant models and resources, as well as offers an overview of available assistance from other organizations.

An accompanying support tool assists evaluation of the strategy. Reference Guide and evaluation tool were drafted in a democratic process among partnering organizations.

ITU calls for global cybersecurity measures

This report presents the results of the GCI and the Cyberwellness country profiles for Member states. It includes regional rankings, a selected set of good practices and the way forward for the next iteration. The original publication is in English and translations in other languages may not accurately reflect the content of the English publication.

In case of discrepancy, the English text shall prevail.It refers to illegal internet -mediated activities that often take place in global electronic networks. Because existing laws in many countries are not tailored to deal with cybercrime, criminals increasingly conduct crimes on the Internet in order to take advantages of the less severe punishments or difficulties of being traced.

No matter, in developing or developed countries, governments and industries have gradually realized the colossal threats of cybercrime on economic and political security and public interests.

However, complexity in types and forms of cybercrime increases the difficulty to fight back. In this sense, fighting cybercrime calls for international cooperation. Various organizations and governments have already made joint efforts in establishing global standards of legislation and law enforcement both on a regional and on an international scale. China—United States cooperation is one of the most striking progress recently, because they are the top two source countries of cybercrime.

Information and communication technology ICT plays an important role in helping ensure interoperability and security based on global standards. General countermeasures have been adopted in cracking down cybercrime, such as legal measures in perfecting legislation and technical measures in tracking down crimes over the network, Internet content controlusing public or private proxy and computer forensicsencryption and plausible deniability, etc.

In terms of cybercrime, we may often associate it with various forms of Internet attacks, such as hackingTrojansmalware keyloggersbotnetDenial-of-Service DoSspoofingphishingand vishing. Though cybercrime encompasses a broad range of illegal activities, it can be generally divided into five categories:.

Data Espionage : Offenders can intercept communications between users such as e-mails by targeting communication infrastructure such as fixed lines or wireless, and any Internet service e.

Dr. John H. Nugent, ITU Cybercrime Legislation Resources: ITU Toolkit for Cybercrime Legislation

Data Interference : Offenders can violate the integrity of data and interfere with them by deleting, suppressing, or altering data and restricting access to them. Pornographic Material Child-Pornography : Sexually related content was among the first content to be commercially distributed over the Internet. RacismHate SpeechGlorification of Violence : Radical groups use mass communication systems such as the Internet to spread propaganda. Religious Offences : A growing number of websites present material that is in some countries covered by provisions related to religious offences, e.

Spam : Offenders send out bulk mails by unidentified source and the mail server often contains useless advertisements and pictures.

Common copyright offences : cyber copyright infringement of software, music or films. Trademark violations : A well-known aspect of global trade. The most serious offences include phishing and domain or name-related offences, such as cybersquatting. Fraud : online auction fraud, advance fee fraudcredit card fraudInternet banking. Identity theft : It refers to stealing private information including Social Security Numbers SSNpassport numbers, Date of birth, addresses, phone numbers, and passwords for non-financial and financial accounts.

Cyberterrorism : The main purposes of it are propaganda, information gathering, preparation of real-world attacks, publication of training material, communication, terrorist financing and attacks against critical infrastructure. Cyberlaundering : Conducting crime through the use of virtual currencies, online casinos etc. Similar to conventional crime, economic benefits, power, revenge, adventure, ideology and lust are the core driving forces of cybercrime.

Major threats caused by those motivations can be categorized as following:. Economic security, reputation and social trust are severely challenged by cyber fraud, counterfeitingimpersonation and concealment of identity, extortionelectronic money launderingcopyright infringement and tax evasion. Public interest and national security is threatened by dissemination of offensive material —e. Privacy, domestic and even diplomatic information security are harmed by unauthorized access and misuse of ICT, denial of services, and illegal interception of communication.

Domestic, as well as international security are threatened by cybercrime due to its transnational characteristic. No single country can really handle this big issue on their own.

Legislation

It is imperative for us to collaborate and defend cybercrime on a global scale. As more and more criminals are aware of potentially large economic gains that can be achieved with cybercrime, they tend to switch from simple adventure and vandalism to more targeted attacks, especially platforms where valuable information highly concentrates, such as computer, mobile devices and the Cloud.

itu toolkit for cybercrime legislation

There are several emerging international trends of cybercrime. Group of Eight G8 is made up of the heads of eight industrialized countries: the U.

In the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution dealing with computer crime legislation. In the UN GA adopted a resolution on combating the criminal misuse of information technology.

Dark Web: Fighting Cybercrime

In the UN GA adopted a second resolution on the criminal misuse of information technology. The International Telecommunication Union ITUas a specialized agency within the United Nations, plays a leading role in the standardization and development of telecommunications and cybersecurity issues.

InGeneva Declaration of Principles and the Geneva Plan of Action were released, which highlights the importance of measures in the fight against cybercrime.Cybercrime laws vary around the world and, in fact, many countries do not have a cybercrime law at all, making tracking and tracing cyber criminal activity and investigating and prosecuting perpetrators of these crimes a global problem. This program will discuss the international issues associated with cyber criminal activity.

There is no single or simple solution, but there are some common requirements for global cyber security.

Building confidence and security in the use of information and communication technologies

One is a harmonized legal framework with respect to cybercrimes and common procedural rules for mutual assistance, cooperation and search and seizure of electronic evidence. Another requirement is an understanding of the issues confronted in investigating cybercrimes in order to facilitate maximum cooperation globally.

The Toolkit was developed by the ABA Committee for the UN with the involvement of a multidisciplinary group of participants from 15 countries. The ABA Committee hopes the Toolkit will be used to help establish a harmonized global framework of cybercrime laws.

Participants from the panel bring deep expertise in international cybercrime issues and also will discuss efforts being made outside of the U.

Reproduction in whole or in part in any form or medium without express permission of Media Inc. Share this Page del. Facebook LinkedIn.These resources include:. The Toolkit is a resource that synthesizes good practices in combatting cybercrime and is organized along nine dimensions, or chapters, which are the same dimensions included in the Assessment Tool. Cybercrime is continually evolving.

The Toolkit captures information as of and will be periodically updated. The Toolkit, a reference resource on its own, also provides a broad contextual background to the Assessment Tool. The Toolkit and Assessment Tool should be read together. The Assessment Tool — available here for downloading — is organized along the same nine dimensions as the Toolkit.

The Assessment Tool is also included with an explanatory chapter in the Toolkit. The purpose of the Assessment Tool is to enable a user to determine gaps in capacity and highlight priority areas to direct capacity-building resources. The first use of the Assessment Tool will provide a baseline.

Periodic updating using the Assessment Tool will provide a basis to monitor progress. Use and results of the Assessment Tool are for the benefit of the user downloading it.

itu toolkit for cybercrime legislation

Workflow remains solely with the user and there is no tracking, ranking or reporting back of results. This is a web-based and interactive platform of materials of partner organizations and other participants in the fight against cybercrime to share information, experience and expertise.

The materials on the virtual library are all in the public domain. We offer the Site, including all information, tools, and services available from it, to you, the user, conditioned upon your acceptance of all these Terms of Use.

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We may revise and update these Terms of Use and the Site from time to time in our sole discretion. All changes are effective immediately when we post them, and apply to all access to and use of the Site thereafter.All kinds of information is available, in multiple formats.

But how much of that information is genuine?

itu toolkit for cybercrime legislation

Is information inaccurate or misleading — or even worse, is content malicious? Fraud, theft and forgery exist online just as they do offline. If users are to benefit from the full advantages of the Internet, then confidence in the infrastructure is of the utmost importance.

In line with these developments, ITU membership has been calling for a greater role to be played by ITU in matters of cybersecurity through various Resolutions, Decisions, Programmes and Recommendations. SinceITU has undertaken a wide range of activities to make communication over public telecommunication networks secure, reliable and user-friendly.

It comprises five strategic pillars: legal measures; technical and procedural measures; institutional structures; capacity building, and international cooperation. The Secretary-General also appointed a High-Level Experts Group from government, industry, international organizations, academia and research. Their goal was to propose strategies for a global response to the constantly evolving nature of cyberthreats and the increasing sophistication of cybercrime.

After meetings in October and in Maythe group presented its strategic proposals to the ITU Secretary-General for assisting Member States to promote cybersecurity. Establishing appropriate legal infrastructure is an integral component of any national cybersecurity strategy. Understanding Cybercrime: A Guide for Developing Countries, published inis an important part of this work and was intended as a tool for the developing world to better understand and assess the national and international implications of growing cyberthreats.

In that same year BDT released a Toolkit for Cybercrime Legislation, developed by a group of experts, to provide Member States with sample legislative language and reference material to assist in harmonizing cybercrime laws and procedural rules.

Standards-development bodies have a vital role to play in addressing security vulnerabilities in protocols. ITU—T holds a unique position in the field of standardization in the sense that its work brings together the private sector and governments to coordinate work and promote the harmonization of security policy and security standards on an international scale.

ITU—T also provides the international platform for the development of the protocols that protect current and next-generation networks NGN. ITU also reviews enhancements to security specifications for mobile end-to-end data communications and considers security requirements for web services and application protocols.

In addition, it is now looking into new security areas related to cloud computing and smart grid. The H. The identity of users communicating through IP media is correctly authenticated and authorized using H.

Real-time multimedia encryption adds a further layer of security, guarding against call interception. ITU—T X. It discusses the nature of the cybersecurity environment and risks, possible network protection strategies, secure communication techniques and network survivability even under attack.

All ITU study groups conduct security-related activities and review security questions as part of their work. It regularly updates the manual on Security in telecommunications and information technology as an overview of security issues the fourth edition was issued in September It also publishes electronically a Security Compendium on its website containing a catalogue of approved ITU—T Recommendations related to security and presenting an extract of security definitions from ITU—T and other sources.


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